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Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math.  They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention.  It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individual’s life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace. [1]

Parents are often worried and disappointed when their child has problems learning in school. There are many reasons for failure in school; a common one is a specific learning disability. A child with a learning disability is usually bright and initially tries very hard to follow instructions, concentrate, and “be good” at home and in school. Yet despite this effort he or she is not mastering school tasks and falls behind. Some learning disabled children also have trouble sitting still or paying attention.

Learning disabilities affect as many as 15 percent of otherwise able schoolchildren.

It is believed that learning disabilities are caused by a difficulty with the nervous system that affects receiving, processing, or communicating information. Some learning disabled children are also hyperactive, easily distracted, and have a short attention span.

Child and adolescent psychiatrists point out that learning disabilities are treatable, but if not detected and treated early, they can have a serious "snowballing" effect. For instance, a child who does not learn addition in elementary school cannot understand algebra in high school. The child, trying very hard to learn, becomes more and more frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some learning disabled children misbehave in school because they would rather be seen as "bad" than "stupid."

Sometimes individual or family psychotherapy (“talking” about your child’s problems) will be recommended. Psychotherapy may help to strengthen your child’s self-confidence; which is vital for healthy development. Therapy also helps parents and other family members better understand and cope with the realities of living with a child with learning disabilities. Medication may be prescribed for hyperactivity or distractibility.

Parents should be aware of the most frequent signals of learning disabilities. Does your child:

  • Have difficulty understanding and following instructions.
  • Have trouble remembering what someone just told him or her.
  • Fail to master reading, writing, and/or math skills, and thus fails schoolwork.
  • Have difficulty distinguishing right from left, for example, confusing 25 with 52,
    “b” with “d,” or “on” with “no.”
  • Lack coordination in walking, sports, or small activities such as holding a pencil or tying a shoelace.
  • Easily lose or misplace homework, schoolbooks, or other items.
  • Not understand the concept of time; is confused by “yesterday,” “today,” and “tomorrow.”

Such problems deserve a comprehensive evaluation by an expert who can assess all of the different issues affecting the child. A child and adolescent psychiatrist can help coordinate the evaluation and work with school professionals and others to evaluate and test your child to determine if a learning disability exists. After talking with the child and family and reviewing the educational testing and consulting with the school, the child and adolescent psychiatrist will make recommendations on appropriate school placement, the need for special help such as special educational therapy or speech-language therapy, and help parents assisting their child in maximizing his or her learning potential.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
3615 Wisconsin Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20016
Phone: (202) 966-7300

Learning Disabilities Association of America
4156 Library Rd
Pittsburg, PA 15234
Phone: (412) 341-1515

National Center for Learning Disabilities
381 Park Avenue South, Suite 1401
New York, NY 10016
Toll-free: (888) 575-7373

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